The shields of the Middle-East were circular and usually domed. They were constructed of many materials, including iron, steel, bronze, leather, cane, wood, even crocodile hide or turtle shell. However, iron/steel and the cane shields, called kalkan were the most frequent. Thin plant rods are spirally plaited around a wooden disc, they are then stitched securely with fabric threads. Later, during the Ottoman Empire these constructions were strengthened with iron struts and an iron border. The "Kalkan" battle shield was thus able to protect both against arrows as well as against sword blows.